This document describes the policies in place for the R package repository hosted by the Comprehensive R Archive Network. In what follows, this CRAN package repository will be referred to as “CRAN”.
CRAN is maintained by the efforts of volunteers (the “CRAN team”) and the resources of the R Foundation and the employers of those volunteers (WU Wien, TU Dortmund, U Oxford, AT&T Research). Having a package distributed by CRAN is subject to a set of policies, and submitting a package (including an update) to CRAN indicates agreement to these policies.
Distributing code or documentation is subject to legal requirements, and CRAN operates in many jurisdictions. One of the aims of these policies is to ensure that the distributors meet their legal obligations of diligence without excessive work.
The time of the volunteers is CRAN’s most precious resource, and they reserve the right to remove or modify packages on CRAN without notice or explanation (although notification will usually be given).
Where copyrights are held by an entity other than the authors, the
Authors@R field can be used, or a
Copyright field (if
necessary referring to an inst/COPYRIGHTS file).
Trademarks must be respected.
The maintainer warrants that (s)he is acting on behalf of all credited authors and has their agreement to use their material in the way it is included in the package (or if this is not possible, warrants that it is used in accordance with the license granted by the original author).
Additional DESCRIPTION fields could be used for providing email addresses for contacting the package authors/developers (e.g., ‘Contact’), or a URL for submitting bug reports (e.g., ‘BugReports’).
Such packages are not permitted to require (e.g., by specifying in ‘Depends’, ‘Imports’ or ‘LinkingTo’ fields) directly or indirectly a package or external software which restricts users or usage.
The package’s license must give the right for CRAN to distribute the package in perpetuity. Any change to a package’s license must be highlighted when an update is submitted (for there have been instances of an undocumented license change removing even the right of CRAN to distribute the package).
When a new maintainer wishes to take over a package, this should be accompanied by the written agreement of the previous maintainer (unless the package has been formally orphaned).
Packages for which
R CMD check gives an ‘ERROR’ when a
new R x.y.0 version is released will be archived (or in
exceptional circumstances updated by the CRAN team) unless the
maintainer has set a firm deadline for an upcoming update (and keeps to
Maintainers will be asked to update packages which show any warnings or significant notes, especially at around the time of a new x.y.0 release. Packages which are not updated are liable to be archived.
As a general rule, neither data nor documentation should exceed 5MB (which covers several books). A CRAN package is not an appropriate way to distribute course notes, and authors will be asked to trim their documentation to a maximum of 5MB.
Where a large amount of data is required (even after compression), consideration should be given to a separate data-only package which can be updated only rarely (since older versions of packages are archived in perpetuity).
Similar considerations apply to other forms of “data”, e.g.,
If running a package uses multiple threads/cores it must never use more than two simultaneously: the check farm is a shared resource and will typically be running many checks simultaneously.
Examples should run for no more than a few seconds each: they are intended to exemplify to the would-be user how to use the functions in the package.
exit, Fortran calls to
STOPand so on must be avoided. Nor may R code call
TMPDIR: and such usage should be cleaned up). Installing into the system’s R installation (e.g., scripts to its bin directory) is not allowed.
Limited exceptions may be allowed in interactive sessions if the package obtains confirmation from the user.
.Call()etc calls to base packages. Also,
:::should not be used to access undocumented/internal functions in base packages. Such usages can cause packages to break at any time, even in patched versions of R.
Policies for when a (Windows or OS X) binary package will be distributed:
R CMD checkwithout error for all the available sub-architectures, or at CRAN’s discretion, for the most important sub-architecture(s).
Binary packages are not accepted from maintainers: CRAN will only host binary packages prepared by those responsible for the binary areas. Their packages are made automatically by batch jobs and can take a day or two to appear on the CRAN master site (maybe longer to reach CRAN mirrors).
When submitting a package to CRAN you should either
ftpto ftp://CRAN.R-project.org/incoming/ and send a (plain text ASCII) email at the same time, with subject line as specified below.
In either case, you can check that the submission was received by looking at ftp://cran.r-project.org/incoming/.
In more detail:
R CMD buildand following the PACKAGE_VERSION.tar.gz naming scheme.
R CMD check --as-cranhas been run on the tarball to be uploaded before submission. This should be done with the current version of R-devel (or if that is not possible, current R-patched or the current release of R.)
In principle, packages must pass
R CMD check without warnings or
significant notes to be admitted to the main CRAN package
area. If there are warnings or notes you cannot eliminate (for example
because you believe them to be spurious) send an explanatory note as
part of your covering email, or as a comment on the submission form.
R CMD check: it is especially expected that you will have checked your own packages. A listing of the reverse dependencies of the current version can be found on the CRAN web page for the package.
ftpupload should be accompanied by an email to CRAN@R-project.org sent from the maintainer address listed in the package, and using the subject line ‘CRAN submission PACKAGE VERSION’, where PACKAGE and VERSION are the package name and version, respectively. Plain text ASCII emails should be used if at all possible.
If for some reason the submission has to be made by someone else (for example, a co-author) this needs to be explained, and the designated maintainer will need to confirm the submission. Explain any change in the maintainer’s email address and if possible send confirmation from the previous address.
For a new submission, confirm in your email that you have read and agree to these policies. (This includes new versions of previously archived packages, and the first submission as the new maintainer for a package.)
If the package needs special treatment (for example if vignettes can only be run or re-built on the maintainer’s machine or take a very long time), say so in the submission email or on the submission form.
Do not email the package itself.
Authors can avoid a lot of the all too frequent rounds of updates by checking carefully for themselves. It should be normal for those without Windows machines of their own to use the winbuilder service to check a package before submission. There is a lot of helpful advice on writing portable packages in “Writing R Extensions”.
Before submitting a package update, consult the CRAN check page at http://cran.r-project.org/web/checks/check_results_NAME.html, substituting NAME by the name of your package. In particular, wait for that page to be fully updated after publication of a version (which can take at least 48 hours) before submitting any corrections.